Facebook’s Meta mission was laid out in a 2018 paper on The Metaverse


    Small toy figures are seen in front of displayed Facebook’s new rebrand logo Meta in this illustration taken, October 28, 2021.

    Dado Ruvic | Reuters

    In June 2018, Oculus executive Jason Rubin sent an email to Facebook board member Marc Andreessen with the subject line “The Metaverse.”

    “We believe that the right way to break through consumer indifference to VR is to deliver what they expect and want from the medium: THE METAVERSE,” reads the first slide of a 50-page document outlining a strategy for building a virtual world.

    The three-year-old document, obtained by CNBC, laid the foundation for the futuristic ambitions of Meta, the company that until now was called Facebook. CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s hour-long demo on Thursday, which culminated in the announcement of the new company name, was designed to portray a very different world than the one we currently inhabit at a time when Facebook faces a non-stop barrage of negative headlines tied to the addictive nature of its social media products.

    Zuckerberg told viewers that the company sees the metaverse, which will take five to 10 years to go mainstream, as the next frontier in technology — the place where people will live, work and play. His presentation came just days after the company announced in its earnings report that the Reality Labs hardware division will become its own financial reporting segment as of the fourth quarter.

    The paper sent to Andreessen in 2018 now looks like the first draft of history. It imagined users floating through a digital universe of virtual ads, filled with virtual goods that people buy. There would be virtual people that they marry, while spending as little time as possible in the so-called “meatverse” — referring to the real world because humans are flesh and blood.  Rubin used the phrase “shock and awe” 12 times to describe the desired experience.

    Andreessen Horowitz partner Marc Andreessen

    Justin Sullivan | Getty Images

    Andreessen was a critical recipient, not just because he’s been on Facebook’s board since 2008, but also due to his influence in this specific space. Through his firm, Andreessen was an early backer of Oculus and also put money into Roblox, the gaming platform for kids that’s focused on building its own metaverse.

    The document was also sent to Andrew “Boz” Bosworth, the head of Facebook’s hardware division, who was promoted in July to chief technology officer (starting next year) and to Hugo Barra, the company’s vice president of virtual reality. The person who shared the document with CNBC wasn’t authorized to speak about it, but Rubin confirmed its validity in an interview on Friday.

    “The Metaverse is ours to lose,” reads one of the first section heads in Rubin’s paper. He went on to say that Facebook started thinking about the concept of the metaverse as a way to appeal to general consumers, because VR wasn’t broadly popular.

    Facebook acquired Oculus for $2 billion in 2014, and as of June 2018, the company’s VR headsets had amassed 250,000 monthly active players, according to the document. But despite hundreds of millions of dollars invested in content for “early adopters and pioneers,” Rubin wrote that the devices hadn’t caught on with non-hardcore gamers and “the average consumer is waiting for the day that VR is ‘fully baked.'”

    “We believe that ‘fully baked’ means the metaverse,” Rubin wrote. “Only such a massive launch will be able to get the attention of VR doubter and VR-maybe-tomorrow crowd.”

    Rubin, whose title at Meta is now vice president of metaverse content, told CNBC that his paper was read fairly widely, but it wasn’t the only one getting attention. 

    “A lot of people had visions of the metaverse at the time, and there were various documents that were floating around with various opinions,” Rubin said on Friday. “I wanted to get mine out there. That’s how we create things here at Facebook. There’s a lot of ideas, a lot of people and they kind of boil up. I’d like to think that some of it was useful.”

    ‘We must act first’

    He also wasn’t keen to partnering at the time. There was no point in working closely with other potential rivals, because Facebook should be where all users go for their virtual experiences, the document says.

    “Let’s not build the Metaverse with the plan to help other Platforms accumulate and retain consumers,” Rubin wrote. “Let’s build the Metaverse to keep them from being in the VR business in a meaningful way at all.”

    Rubin emphasized on Friday that the company has moved away from that approach and that the plan is for the metaverse be interoperable and open, not “restrictive to one company.”

    A Meta spokesperson said in an emailed statement that technology has evolved since 2018, when the focus was mainly VR. The company said it has always expected competition in the market from Microsoft, Google, Apple, Sony, Roblox and many others.

    “What has always been clear: investing in and building products that consumers want is the key to success; that we cannot build the metaverse alone; and that collaboration with developers, creators, and experts will be critical,” the spokesperson said.

    Priya gets married

    Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg is seen fencing in the “Metaverse” with an Olympic gold medal fencer during a live-streamed virtual and augmented reality conference to announce the rebrand of Facebook as Meta, in this screen grab taken from a video released October 28, 2021.

    Facebook | via Reuters

    Within two decades, time spent in the metaverse could rival that of “TV in the 90’s and Facebook in recent years.” And most importantly for Facebook, “net revenue after developer payout is billions a year,” he wrote. That would come from the sale of virtual real estate, hats, weapons and status symbols.

    Revenue would also come from ads, the market Facebook knows best. Rubin imagines Coca-Cola paying for prime placement of a pavilion, Ford paying for its virtual cars to be usable or Procter & Gamble promoting its brands on digital billboards. Gucci could open a virtual store and Comcast (owner of CNBC parent NBCUniversal) would pay for “a giant sign that says, ‘Comcast: Get Better MetaSpeed!'”

    “If the Metaverse is where people are spending time, then it is where the real economy will want to be,” Rubin wrote. “It is our goal to bring the Metaverse to this stage. Anything short doesn’t seem like it is a Facebook product.”

    Given that deep level of immersion, Rubin estimated that 100 million metaverse users could lead to more revenue than a real universe with one billion users.

    “I might check in to Facebook multiple times a day, but I will LIVE in the Metaverse, work in the Metaverse, and potentially prefer my time in the Metaverse to my day-to-day grind,” the document says.

    To be successful, Rubin writes, the metaverse has to be scary. That is, it has to to be so ambitious, so bold, so filled with thousands of hours of gameplay, so life-altering that Facebook engineers are terrified of what they’re up against.

    “If delivering the Metaverse we set out to build doesn’t scare the living hell out of us, then it is not the Metaverse we should be building, it is not what customers want, and it is, therefore, meaningless,” he wrote. “Anything else is a Mini-verse.”

    Building all of that and reaching the universe of customers necessary, Rubin wrote, would require more than just internal resources. He suggested that Facebook would need a gaming studio with a team of more than 100 people that could create a massive multiplayer online game.

    “One thing is absolutely clear: There is no team inside Facebook with the cohesion and experience of shipping large, technically challenging, awe-inspiring game/interactive product that is capable of producing the City,” Rubin wrote, referring to the digital world the company was aiming to build. “For these reasons, we are going to need to make an acquisition.”

    He named as potential targets Insomniac Games and Gearbox Software. Other studios like Blizzard and Rockstar were too big and too profitable for an acquisition and too committed to their own universe.

    Rubin ended up recommending Ready at Dawn, the studio behind “Lone Echo.” Facebook did the deal in June 2020.

    Setting the stage

    In addition to the metaverse’s technological achievements, the launch of the product would be critical and would need to “create shock and awe,” Rubin wrote.

    Zuckerberg should avoid going up on stage at a conference with a slide behind him that reads, “Welcome to the Metaverse” if the company isn’t ready to meet the moment.

    Mark Zuckerberg, chief executive officer of Facebook Inc., speaks during the virtual Facebook Connect event, where the company announced its rebranding as Meta, in New York, U.S., on Thursday, Oct. 28, 2021.

    Michael Nagle | Bloomberg | Getty Images

    “If we telegraph every step of our roadmap because we have keynote minutes to fill, the competition will always be one step behind,” Rubin wrote. “Let’s not do that. Let’s wait until we have a Metaverse worthy of the name — a Fait Accompli.”

    Zuckerberg didn’t fully heed that call. His presentation on Thursday was bold, but the world he depicted is nowhere near ready for consumer navigation.

    The demo was a Pixar-like animation, showcasing software the company hopes to build. It was filled with users hanging out and working out as avatars or cartoonish versions of themselves. Zuckerberg acknowledged that the technology is a long way off, potentially as far as a decade into the future.

    Some suggested that Facebook needed to change the conversation and distract the public after six damaging weeks of stories based on leaked documents from a whistleblower.

    Rubin had a different explanation. He said the company now knows that to achieve its herculean mission, it needs to bring others along for the ride, kissing goodbye to the walled garden approach.

    “This is a long journey that we’re going to be on with a lot of different companies,” Rubin said in the interview. “And you just can’t keep it under wraps that long.” 

    — CNBC’s Samantha Subin contributed to this report.

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